Atal Bihari Vajpayee

By Sunil Kumar

A successful politician is someone who means all things to all people”. This enigmatic phrase seems to sum up this insightful biography of Vajpayee; by Kingshuk Nag

 Atal Bihari Vajpayee

For a TV generation; Modi’s achievement has been in making Jana Sangh icons such as Shyam Prasad Mukherjee and Deen Dayal Upadhyay more well known. Vajpayee

For someone who is psychologically invested in the future of his nation; despite a somewhat pretentious world repeatedly stressing on the ill-effects of so-called “jingoism”; and media commentators cooking up daily excuses to undermine national identity; the history of the Indian republic is a roller-coaster ride much like the long narrative of an ancient civilization. Public memory is short; something that is top-of-mind today seems like a shadow only a decade later.

Atal”ji”; a Bharat Ratna is currently incapacitated both physically and mentally. His long innings in public life; poetic nature, witty repartee and thoughtful oratory were appreciated across the Indian political spectrum. Unlike our present prime minister; who draws extreme adulation or revulsion; Vajpayee was a generally liked “middle-0f-the road” politician.

Nag informs that Jawaharlal Nehru was subjected to Vajpayee’s critiques; but was very fond of this fiery orator from Gwalior; who came to Delhi in 1950; a mere three years after independence. Unlike the general lack of civility in public discourse and the instant reactions of social media; Vajpayee was of a more genteel mindset; a wily old man; but appealing nevertheless.

The internal dynamics of the RSS and the Jana Sangh; the formation of the BJP; and Vajpayee’s electoral fortunes make for engaging reading. The writer reveals that M.S Golwalkar; the first sarsanghachalak was instrumental in promoting “cultural nationalism”; was a semi-mystical recluse; not very interested in the trappings of power. Core governance with development is an agenda most people aspire for; the author seems to suggest that Vajpayee provided this in ample measure during his tenure as the first BJP Prime Minister.


Many people; including this writer are sick of politicians making a mockery of democracy; indulging in personal turf wars; and ego struggles. Vajpayee’s statements here are illustrative; “The greatest curse, not merely of Indian politics but of national life as a whole, is the general incapacity to work together. Let’s learn to unite, instead of dividing to create harmony where disharmony exists and to keep our self-interest and ego in leash”. Atal also alluded to how centre-state relations in the country had become akin to a saas-bahu relationship.

Although the book stops short of a hagiography; Atal’s power dynamic; his relations with people such as Balraj Madhok, L.K Advani, Jaswant Singh; K.S Sudarshan, Govindacharya and his personal life are described in some detail. A mild-mannered leader ranks higher in public perception than a so-called “dictatorial” leader; but everything is subjected to the relativity of time; and overall results.

Vajpayee was also instrumental in building a momentum for economic liberalization; and laid the groundwork for “India Shining”; an economic base which helped his arch-rivals when they managed to crawl back into power in 2004.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s politics stem from a conciliatory; all-encompassing Indian world view; pluralism which can sometimes not feel right in a world that is a sordidly brutal power struggle. As a nation; positive icons are needed in times of great upheaval. A.B Vajpayee; A.P.J Kalam seem to inspire faith in an age of over-the-top histrionics and the increasingly dark spectre of votebank politics. Motivation can indeed bring about change; and this sincere citizen earnestly hopes that there is a new dawn.

share save 171 16 Atal Bihari Vajpayee

New Harry Potter Stage Play A Sequel

By Aglaia Staff

When news of the upcoming play “Harry Potter and the Cursed Child” first broke in June, rumors swirled and everyone started making their own guesses on the production’s plot.

But new details have emerged on the two-part play, which author J.K. Rowling developed with playwright Jack Thorne and director John Tiffany. It is set to premiere on London’s West End in 2016.
Most notably, we now know the play will be a sequel and should be considered the series’ “eighth story,” set to take place 19 years later, contradicting early reports predicting the play would be a prequel.
The epilogue to the final book, ‘Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows,’ takes place 19 years after the events of the book, and sees Harry, along with his friends Ron and Hermione, dropping their children off at the Hogwarts Express.”

We’re also now seeing the first images of the play’s official artwork, which shows a child hunched inside a nest that appears to have black wings.
Below is a brief plot decription about what we can expect from the production:

“It was always difficult being Harry Potter and it isn’t much easier now that he is an overworked employee of the Ministry of Magic, a husband and father of three school-age children.
While Harry grapples with a past that refuses to stay where it belongs, his youngest son Albus must struggle with the weight of a family legacy he never wanted. As past and present fuse ominously, both father and son learn the uncomfortable truth: sometimes, darkness comes from unexpected places.”
Preview performances will officially begin on June 7 and July 30 will mark the world premiere opening night.
share save 171 16 New Harry Potter Stage Play A Sequel

Love Story That Cost GVK Biosciences Its International Reputation

By Aglaia Staff

A GVK Bio whistle-blower‘s personal crisis led to EU suspending approval for its generic drugs.

A torrid love affair between two employees resulted in the international scrutiny of GVK Biosciences and a ban on marketing of around 700 generic drugs tested by the facility.

670px Methylphenidat generics germany Love Story That Cost GVK Biosciences Its International Reputation

Visit English: Methylphenidate packages from several german generic drug manufacturers. Deutsch: Methylphenidat-Arzneimittel diverser deutscher Generikahersteller. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The employee, in love with a junior, left with her in 2011, prompting the girl’s parents to approach the police. As a result, GVK Biosciences — one of the largest Contract Research Organisations based in Hyderabad — dismissed the employee.

The police, during the investigation, went through the employee’s emails and found that he had written to every major drug regulatory authority in the world raising doubts about the quality of clinical research conducted at GVK Biosciences. The disgruntled employee’s emails served their intended purpose, at least for him.

International medicine agencies sought to inspect GVK Biosciences’ Hyderabad facility and alleged manipulation of data by the organisation. The European Union banned 700 drugs tested by GVK Biosciences in July this year after which the Indian government suspended the EU Free Trade Agreement (EU FTA) talks that were to resume in August after a two-year break.

It was found that the employee, though married and blessed with two children, had an illegitimate affair. He resigned from GVK Biosciences in September 2011 to sort out/resolve this issue but started blaming GVK Biosciences for his personal issue,” said Dorothy Paul, the company’s spokesperson.

The employee did not respond to email queries sent by The Hindu on October 6.

Between January and October 2013, the whistle-blower sent 15 emails to the United States Food & Drug Administration (USFDA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) and the National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (ANSM), requesting them to audit the facility. The emails have been seen by The Hindu.

“After thorough internal investigations on the anonymous emails, GVK Biosciences filed a police complaint,” added the spokesperson. Citing his reasons for the revelations in one of the 15 emails to USFDA, the employee wrote, “cruel politics of selfish senior employees” prompted him to complain against GVK Biosciences.

Reacting to the ban by European drug regulators, the Commerce Ministry said in a release that it was “disappointed by and concerned” at the ban on “one of the flagship sectors of India”, as the story snowballed into the latest setback to the reputation of India-made generic drugs.

The ban had come in the backdrop of increasing tensions, with multinational pharmaceutical companies accusing India of having a hostile intellectual property climate. The Indian generic drug-makers had countered by accusing big pharma of using patents as an excuse to keep affordable Indian medicines from the access of poor patients.

“The IPA is deeply concerned about the damage it has caused to the reputation of the Indian pharmaceutical industry as a reliable supplier of safe, effective and quality medicine at very competitive prices to the EU Member States and their people. The banning of these 700 drugs merely on a suspicion of “manipulation” of ECGs of healthy volunteers and without sufficient evidence was uncalled for. The inspector had erred, yet the Agency did not intervene, in spite of the error being brought to its notice by the government. It only leaves doubt about its intention,” said D.G. Shah, secretary-general of Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance (IPA), a lobby of domestic drug-makers.

G.N. Singh, Drug Controller-General of India (DCGI), confirmed that he knew about the whistle-blower. “We do not know why the whistle-blower — if that was his intention — did not approach the Indian regulators first. Having said that, one must understand that there is a bigger game being played out here. I have repeatedly stated that multinational pharmaceutical companies constantly use incidents like this to bring disrepute to Indian generic drug makers,” he said.



share save 171 16 Love Story That Cost GVK Biosciences Its International Reputation

Devout Hindus Celebrate Basant Panchami In Prayag

By Aglaia Staff

Thousands of devout Hindus took a holy bath and dip in the sacred waters of ‘Sangam‘, the confluence of River Ganges, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati, on Tuesday in Prayag, Uttar Pradeshon the occasion of Basant Panchmi, a festival that marks the onset of spring. 

The festival glorifies Hindu Goddess Saraswati, patron of knowledge, music and the arts. 

The devotees offered prayers and performed religious rituals on the banks of the river early on Tuesday.

Security has also been tightened in and around the city, as police personnel have been deployed in large numbers keeping in mind huge rush of devotees. 

Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP) Umesh Kumar said his team was determined to make the festival a successful one. 

“Crowd of devotees are coming to take holy dip on the occasion Basant Panchmi. Till now, around 2 lakh devotees have taken holy bathe. We are determined to make the holy dip successful with the help of police personnel,” said Kumar. 

Locals queued up before priests who had erected makeshift altars on the riverbanks to perform the rituals and offer prayers. 

A devotee, Aman said that he came to seek the blessings of Goddess Saraswati.

“I have come here to take holy dip on the occasion of Hindu festival, Basant Panchmi. We will also pray before Hindu Goddess, Saraswati as we hope that we will be blessed with knowledge and wisdom,” said Aman. 

‘Saraswati Puja’ is a festive day for students of all disciplines, special worship ceremonies to honour the goddess ‘Saraswati’ are put together at various places in India

Saraswati Puja is observed on the fifth day after the no moon night in the Hindu month of Magh (early in February). 

It is believed that of Goddess Saraswati was born on this day. Saraswati has been identified with the Vedic Saraswati River. 

The festival concurs with ‘Vasant Panchami’, which is also named as ‘Shree Panchami’. Women dress in yellow, which is the colour of spring, and prepare a variety of sweets flavoured with saffron.


 Devout Hindus Celebrate Basant Panchami In Prayag
share save 171 16 Devout Hindus Celebrate Basant Panchami In Prayag

Getting The Best Black Friday Deals

By Aglaia Staff

. I’m hitting the stores this year for the big Black Friday sales. Any shopping tips?

A. Yes! Check online for leaked Black Friday ads so you have time to compare prices and map out what stores to visit. Take photos of the ad items and keep them on your phone so you remember what you’re after. It’s easier than lugging a paper ad around all day. Some online retailers will be kicking off Black Friday sales early, so keep an eye online for store opening times.


Signs of a dangerous online shopping scam

Q. I keep getting emails with links for coupons. When I click on them, the site asks for my credit card information. Are these for real?

A. Nope, those are definitely scams. A legitimate company won’t ask for your banking or credit card information to get coupons. Look for red flags – including misspellings and multiple pop-up windows – that are dead giveaways for a scam site. If an email seems suspicious, don’t reply or click on any links. Delete it immediately.

Maximize your hard drive space

Q. My computer keeps giving me a “low disk space” warning. Any suggestions?

A. You can remove unneeded software with a tool like PC Cleaner. Find and delete space-consuming duplicate files using a program like Duplicate Cleaner If you have hundreds of photos or other large files, you can move them to DVD, flash drive or an inexpensive external hard drive.

Steps to take before selling your old gadgets

Q. I’m selling my old computer. Is there anything I should do before putting it up for sale?

A. First, make sure important files are safely transferred to your new gear. Then permanently erase your personal information. The easiest way is to wipe your hard drive with a program like Darik’s Boot And Nuke Another option is to delete only your sensitive files with a program like Eraser For Windows and Permanent Eraser For Mac.

Social networks you didn’t know kids are using

Q. I know my teens are on Facebook and Twitter. Are there other social networks popular with kids right now?

A. You bet there are. Snapchat, widely nicknamed “the sexting app,” lets kids share photos or video that “self-destruct” seconds after they’ve been viewed. Teens also love Tumblr, a popular blogging site. But parents should know it’s chock-full of adult content. Pheed is a newer social network where kids can create live audio and video broadcasts. But its live-streaming features raise serious privacy concerns.



 Getting The Best Black Friday Deals
share save 171 16 Getting The Best Black Friday Deals

Can India’s Party Capital Quit Its Drug Habit?

By Aglaia Staff

Is Goa in danger of turning into another Mexico, with its frequent gun battles between rival drug lords and cartels? While these fears may be a little exaggerated, the Oct 30 gruesome murder of a Nigerian national, Obodo Uzoma Simeon, in a north Goa village, has exposed the fractious ties between various drug cartels operating in the northern part of the state.

With its reputation as a party hotspot, Goa’s drug scene has been growing unchecked, and given its strategic coastal location, it’s also a transit point for drugs in demand, including cocaine, charas, ganja and chemical drugs which are gaining in popularity. Sources allege that Simeon’s murder is connected to the Nigerian cartel, new on the scene and reportedly at loggerheads with the local gangs over territories. Gang members from the African countries deal in cocaine while staying in rented houses close to popular beaches. Most transactions are done over the phone. Because the tourist numbers from African countries in Goa aren’t high, they’re peddling on local turf.

This reportedly infuriated the Goan drug mafia that controls the trade across north Goa’s coastal belt. Surendra Pol, who was arrested for Simeon’s murder on Nov 5, is from Chapora village from where this local mafia, known as the ‘Chapora Boys’ gang, operates. Chapora, once a sleepy fishing hamlet near Anjuna, has been the hub of illegal narcotics trade in Goa for the last decade. Sources claim five gangs operating in this belt have their territory marked out, and any intrusion by rival peddlers is met with a swift response, which usually means a warning for a first time ‘mistake’, followed by violence. Foreign drug dealers in these parts, including Israelis, Russians, British, Italians, etc, restrict their operations to citizens from their own countries, leaving street peddling to the Goans.

300px Anjuna beach Goa Can Indias Party Capital Quit Its Drug Habit?

The recent violence has hadfar-reaching consequences. Following the protest, where Nigerians, Kenyans and Ghanians stopped the hearse van carrying Simeon’s body at Porvorim and blocked traffic on Goa’s main National Highway 17 for hours, 51 Nigerians were arrested for attempt to murder and rioting. The protestors alleged that despite having eye-witnesses who can identify Simeon’s killers, because of racism and corruption in police ranks and political establishment, the police refused to act. A large number of Goans, led by local MLA Rohan Khaunte, also blocked the highway but no arrests were made.

Instead, on Nov 8, the police claimed 38 Nigerians arrested do not have valid documents. During the course of investigation, a BJP legislator called them “rats” on two occasions on Oct 30-31 while on Nov 3, art and culture minister Dayanand Mandrekar said they were “cancer” to Goa. (Mandrekar apologized for his remark on Nov 7.) Retaliating, Jacob Nwadadia, Nigeria’s consular attache in Delhi flew down to Goa on Nov 3 and met the DGP and senior police officers.

On Nov 8 the Centre said it was in ‘diplomatic dialogue’ with Nigeria to resolve the matter. Prior to Simeon’s murder, Goa’s drug cartels have never posed a serious law and order situation in Goa.

300px Nigeria political Can Indias Party Capital Quit Its Drug Habit?

Visit English: Political map of the 36 States of Nigeria (English) Deutsch: politische Karte Nigerias (Englisch) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

As a party central state, drugs have been good for tourism business and those who’ve attempted to crack down on the raves – like former north Goa SP Vijay Singh – have reportedly been severely censured by seniors. There have also been stray attempts to bust the alleged nexus between peddlers and police – in 2010, six members of the anti-narcotic cell of Goa police including police inspector Ashish Shirodkar, sub-inspector Punaji Gawas – were arrested in a racket.

pixel Can Indias Party Capital Quit Its Drug Habit?

This is how it usually goes – the peddler sells drugs to a tourist, and then informs the police, who raid his room and catches him in possession of drugs. Threatened with a jail sentence, the tourist offers a few thousand euros, which are pocketed by the police.

Now Kishan Kumar, director general of Goa police, says law enforcers are committed to cracking down on drug pushers and that several cases have been booked. “The anti-narcotic cell is also being strengthened,” he said. Goa chief minister Manohar Parrikar reiterates Kumar’s claim. “The government will crack down on drug trafficking in the state,” he said in a statement.


 Can Indias Party Capital Quit Its Drug Habit?
share save 171 16 Can Indias Party Capital Quit Its Drug Habit?

Leicester Diwali Celebrations Draw Large Crowds

By Aglaia Staff

Tens of thousands of people have celebrated Diwali in Leicester city centre.

Celebrations were held in the streets around the Belgrave Road, known as the Golden Mile.

About 35,000 turned out for the lights switch on last week, and even more people are believed to have attended the main event.

Diwali is a celebration of light over darkness and is a major Hindu festival also marked by Sikhs and Jains.

The annual Leicester event, which culminates in a large firework display in nearby Cossington Street Recreation Ground, is thought to be one of the largest Diwali parties outside India.

Manjula Sood, chairman of the Leicester Council of Faiths, said that like many Hindus, she started the day with family prayers at home before exchanging sweets.

 Leicester Diwali Celebrations Draw Large Crowds

Visit English: Newarke Houses Museum, Leicester (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“This year we are going to have a spectacular fireworks show and people will see how beautiful it is and then we greet each other on Belgrave Road,” she said.

She added: “It’s not only for Hindus, Sikhs or Jains. This has become such a wonderful festival. You see people from everywhere, not only Leicester. They come from outside Leicester and share in our joy.”

As well as fireworks, people can enjoy Rangoli street art by artist Janak Chauhan as well as entertainment on stage in the park.

Across the rest of the city, events have been held to celebrate Diwali including arts and crafts at Newarke Houses Museum and Gardens and several shows at Curve theatre.

 Leicester Diwali Celebrations Draw Large Crowds
share save 171 16 Leicester Diwali Celebrations Draw Large Crowds

A Few Diwali Greetings

Happy Diwali, Everybody!

By Aglaia Staff

Conventional greetings mentioned here. Sometimes it’s good to be in the mood.

58094474 18306224aa m A Few Diwali Greetings

Visit Diwali Lighting (Photo credit: Ravikiran Rao)

It’s that time of the year again – the time that good triumphs over evil and we all come out to celebrate the festival of lights and spread love and affection all around. Want to wish your near and dear ones good luck and prosperity this Diwali but can’t find the right words? We’ve rounded up some lovely Diwali quotes to help you know exactly what to say to friends, family and colleagues this weekend.

1. May a zillion lights of joy reflect on you and your family on this Diwali day. Wishing you fun that sparkles, love that shines, happiness that overwhelms , prosperity that overflows and peace that stays forever. Wishing you and your loved ones a wonderful Diwali!

2. Good fortune, Purity, Prosperity, May Lord Ganesha bless you with all his charms, today and for years to come. Wishing you a very happy Diwali.

3. At this joyous time, let us remember fond memories and look forward to great things that are yet to come. May our lives be filled evermore with good cheer, luck, prosperity and virtue. Wishing you good fortune this Diwali.

4. May this Diwali bring good fortune and prosperity to us all. May our lives be brighter and filled with faith, purity and perseverance. As we light up diyas in our homes this Diwali, we share our blessings of good life and peace with the world. Happy Deepavali!

5. May the millions of lights that shine today light up your life with endless prosperity, good fortune and joy. Sending you and your family warmest wishes for a wonderful Diwali.

274604030 da9e9d2d91 m A Few Diwali Greetings

Visit Diwali, Trafalgar Square (Photo credit: Paul Carvill)

With the gleam of diyas and the echos of chants, may happiness and contentment fill your life this Diwali. Sending you love, luck and best wishes on the festival of lights.

7. This Diwali we wish for you infinite little lamps of joy to be lit in your life, to erase the darkness and bring brightness and merriment, prosperity and good luck, peace and love. May the glow of happiness shine on you always. Happy Diwali!

8. A festival full of sweet childhood memories, a sky full of fireworks, a mouth full of sweets, a house full of diyas and a heart full of happiness…Wishing you good luck and prosperity this Diwali.

300px The Rangoli of Lights A Few Diwali Greetings

Visit English: Rangoli, decorations made from colored powder, is popular during Diwali. ?????: Rangoli, decorations made from colored powder, is popular during Diwali. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

9. Let this Deepawali not only be a celebration of good’s triumph over evil but a celebration of the serenity and goodness of life itself. For each candle that we light up in our homes with our families, we also let the best in ourselves shine brighter. Wising you peace and happiness this Diwali.

300px Diwali Greetings A Few Diwali Greetings

English: Diwali greeting (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

10. With the echo of holy chants, with the bright glow of diyas, with the sweet smell of flowers, may this Diwali fulfill all your dreams.



 A Few Diwali Greetings
share save 171 16 A Few Diwali Greetings

The Fashion App Store

By Aglaia Staff

For now, the fashion apps crossover remains a distinctly off-catwalk affair. There may be official Candy Crush Saga socks, but as yet no designer has grasped the nettle of popular digital culture to send their models out dressed as candies, Angry Birds or plants and zombies.

300px Dolce %26 Gabbana Shop %28Via della Spiga   Milan%29 02 The Fashion App Store

Visit The Dolce & Gabbana shop in Via della Spiga, Milan (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

300px Kylie minogue statue at waterfront city The Fashion App Store

Visit English: Bronze statue of Kylie Minogue by Peter Corlett at Waterfront City, Docklands, Victoria in Melbourne Docklands (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Maybe this month’s London Fashion Week will see that change. Assuming not, though, there is still plenty to talk about in the way the fashion industry is using smartphone and tablet apps to reach its customers – and how those people are using apps to reach one another too.

et’s start with the big fashion brands, and a couple of general thoughts. First: the people in charge of commissioning apps for these companies clearly like their iDevices, for Android versions are thin on the ground.

Second: a lot of big fashion brands are still a bit unsure what apps are for, judging by the number of barely-more-than-a-brochure promotional apps, and a fair few that haven’t been updated for a year or more.

Some of the more interesting ones: Gucci Style (iOS) which is pitched as a “shoppable magazine” looking behind the company’s new clobber, rather than simply showing pretty pictures of it (although yes, there are plenty of those too).

Christian Dior has also gone down the digital-magazine route with itsDior app (iOS/ Android), offering a mixture of previews, interviews and backstage videos. “Life inside the House of Dior” as it puts it.

Lacoste has a well-designed Lacoste Shop shopping app (iOS) but has also dabbled in more magazine-like content too through its Lacoste L!VE app, which took a look at Japanese fashion and culture alongside the brand’s Spring/Summer 2013 line.

Dolce & Gabbana‘s main DGW14 app (iOS / Android) is firmly focused on showing its latest collections and helping people find the clothes in stores, but the company has tried other apps too: Kylie (iOS / Android) to show the stage wardrobe it created for Kylie Minogue’s last tour, and Dolce & Gabbana Watches (iOS), a virtual-watch app to showcase its real timepieces.

Wild cards? There’s Amble with Louis Vuitton (iOS), which is less about plugging clothes and more about getting people to save and share photos, notes, videos and sounds of their travels, complete with city guides for London, Barcelona, Madrid and other cities around the world.

For now, more brands are opting for stylish-but-standard apps offering product images, news and shopping information, from Benetton (iOS/Android) to Mulberry (iOs), Hugo Boss (iOS) and Chanel (iOs).


 The Fashion App Store
share save 171 16 The Fashion App Store

India’s Society Become More Stratified: Genetic Study

By Aglaia Staff

A recent study has revealed that the present caste system persisting in the Indian population is the result of a recent population mixture among divergent demographic groups.

Scientists from Harvard Medical School and the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad have provided evidence that modern-day India is an admixture of various groups.

India has transformed from a country where mixture between different populations was rampant to one where endogamy, marrying within the local community, became the norm.

300px Harvard Medical School HDR Indias Society Become More Stratified: Genetic Study

Harvard Medical School Quadrangle - High Dynamic Range (HDR) Image taken in fall 2010. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

David Reich, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, said that the caste system in India has been around for a long time, but it was not there since its inception.

300px Hindu children of high caste%2C Bombay%2C India Indias Society Become More Stratified: Genetic Study

Reich’s 2009 study, based on an analysis of 25 different Indian population groups, found out that how all populations in India showed evidence of a genetic mixture of two ancestral groups, Ancestral North Indians (ANI), related to Central Asians, Middle Easterners, Caucasians, and Europeans; and Ancestral South Indians (ASI), primarily from the subcontinent.

Originally when the ANI and ASI populations mixed, the chromosomal segments would have been extremely long.

However, after mixture these segments would have broken up at one or two places per chromosome, per generation, recombining the maternal and paternal genetic material that occurs during the production of egg and sperm.

The authors were thus able to obtain precise estimates of the age of population mixture by measuring the lengths of the segments of ANI and ASI ancestry in Indian genomes.

They concluded that major ANI-ASI mixture occurred about 1,900-4,200 years ago.

The most remarkable aspect of the ANI-ASI mixture is how pervasive it was because it affected not just traditionally upper-caste groups, but also traditionally lower-caste and isolated tribal groups, all of whom seem to be united in their history of mixture in the past few thousand years.

Lalji Singh, former researcher in the CSIR- CCMB, said: “The fact that every population in India evolved from randomly mixed populations suggests that social classifications like the caste system are not likely to have existed in the same way before the mixture happened.”

The researchers also observed that once established, the caste system became genetically effective, and mixture across groups became very rare.

Kumarasamy Thangaraj, of the CSIR-CCMB, said: “An important consequence of these results is that the high incidence of genetic and population-specific diseases that is characteristic of present-day India is likely to have increased only in the last few thousand years when groups in India started following strict endogamous marriage.”

Aglaia Note: As with every historical and genetic study; this cannot be considered conclusive. With centuries of invasion, insularity and cultural cross-currents; there can be no certainty on any historical, genetic or other facts.

 Indias Society Become More Stratified: Genetic Study
share save 171 16 Indias Society Become More Stratified: Genetic Study

  • Contact

    Drop us a mail at:
  • Sunil’s Blog

  • Aglaia Share

  • only search
  • Linkedin

  • Say My Name

  • Buy On Amazon

  • Life Means More

  • Bigrock

  • Zuji Singapore – A Travelocity Company

  • Vacation in Mallorca

  • MultiLingual Website

  • Subscribe To Our Youtube Channel

  • Channel Snippets

  • Copyright © 1996-2013 $ Aglaia Interactive Solutions Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.